Experimenting with leaner ways to collect poverty data
In partnership with Grameen Foundation India, Acumen is working on a Lean Data Initiative, analyzing the poverty rates among investee Ziqitza Healthcare Limited‘s callers in Orissa, one of India’s poorest states. Wei Wei is an Impact Associate working on this project and provides context for the study below.
In contrast to the chilly, grey morning outside, the brightly-lit room in Amritsar, Punjab buzzes with life as a few dozen young people sit in front of phones and computers. Phones ring every few seconds and alerts on pending calls flash on their computer screens. Fingers dance quickly and lightly across keyboards, punching in numbers and commands instinctively.
But this isn’t just any call center in India – the young 20-somethings are answering calls that are often a matter of life and death. They’re working for Ziqitza Healthcare Limited, which runs 240 ambulances for the government of Punjab in addition to several hundred ambulances across several other states. Known locally as “108”, the emergency telephone line, everyone from taxi drivers to villagers is aware of the service. The call center processes almost a thousand calls a day from traffic accidents to expectant mothers headed into labor.
Acumen invested in Ziqitza over five years ago, when the company had a fleet of just nine ambulances in Mumbai and a can-do spirit. Through a number of public private partnerships with state governments wanting to provide reliable emergency transportation services to both their rural and urban populations the company has since grown to serve over 2.5 million callers with a fleet of nearly a thousand ambulances. Ziqitza’s emergency medical technicians are indeed very reliable – they were first responders in the 28/11 attacks at the Taj hotel in Mumbai and rescuers during the flooding in Orissa this year.
As board members of the company and investors, we’ve always known Ziqitza to be a socially-focused company with cutting edge standards of service. But what we didn’t know as deeply was who they were serving, and whether – as a free service in states where they’ve signed contracts with the government – they were reaching into poorer segments of the population that would have no alternative emergency medical transport. Given the company’s social mission, Ziqitza’s CEO Sweta Mangal is also determined to better understand their focus on the poor. So we came together with Grameen Foundation India to run a study of poverty rates among ZHL’s callers in two of their biggest states – Punjab and Orissa – using Grameen Foundation’s Progress Out of Poverty Index, an easy-to-administer 10 question tool that determines poverty likelihoods.
The impetus behind Grameen’s creation of the Progress Out of Poverty Index was the desire to create a tool that would simplify the process of understanding who was being served and whether there were any improvements in poverty levels over time. Income-related information is notoriously difficult to collect accurately, and existing surveys took hours to conduct in person.
The study is novel in two ways in its application of the PPI to Ziqitza:
1) Rather than being conducted in person, the study is layered on Ziqitza’s existing infrastructure – its call centers – where members of their quality team perform customer call backs within days or weeks of the initial call. The quality team is adding the PPI’s 10 questions onto their usual set of customer feedback questions. This process cuts down on surveying time and costs dramatically. We’ll be conducting an in person validation of a small percentage of calls to determine the efficacy of this method.
2) It will test correlations of poverty rates to other information regularly, and rigorously, collected by the company such as the urgency of the caller’s medical complaints and whether the caller comes from a rural versus urban area. By doing so we’ll learn more about whether poorer callers are using the service differently and what the company can do to target them most effectively.
We’re particularly excited that the study will be the first to be part of Acumen’s Lean Data Initiative, which is experimenting with leaner, more cost and time efficient ways to collect better data on our investee’s customers, with the hope of furthering both business and impact measurement goals. By testing a range of collection methods (like call centers, SMS, and automated voice response), we’ll also be improving upon our own understanding of what methods work best with different business models.
We look forward to sharing what we’ve learned in the next months!